The distinction between convergent and divergent cognitive processes given by Guilford (1956) had a strong influence on the empirical research on creative thinking. Neuroscientific studies of creativity could find higher event-related synchronization (ERS) in the EEG alpha rhythm for individuals engaged in divergent compared to convergent thinking tasks (e.g. Fink et al., 2009). This study examined, whether these neurophysiological effects can also be found when using the same type of task for measuring both cognitive processing modes (convergent vs. divergent) by means of a variation in the instruction.In a sample of N = 55 pupils, a well-known task on divergent thinking as well as a novel associative task, which reflects an elementary-cognitive process in creative thinking (Benedek, 2009), were administered during EEG recording. Participants ran through both tasks in a convergent (?find the most usual solution?) and a divergent (?find the most unusual solution?) condition.The answers given in the divergent condition were rated significantly higher on originality than those given in the convergent condition. It could further be shown that, in both tasks, divergent cognitive processing involves stronger ERS than convergent processing. The results for individuals of lower and higher creativity point to the particular role of frontal cortical areas in creative cognition.These findings stand in line with theories on the neurophysiological basis of creative thinking (e.g. Martindale, 1999) and provide further support for the supposed relationship between ERS and creative thinking. This phenomenon can now better be associated with cognitive processing modes than with general task characteristics.