This paper focuses on the field research in folk songs and folk music in South Tyrol carried out by the german musicologist Alfred Quellmalz (1899-1979) on behalf of the national socialist organisation 'Ahnenerbe' from 1940 to 1942. Besides Alfred Quellmalz' biography and career, the first part of the paper also presents the development of institutions such as the Deutsches Volksliedarchiv (German archive of folk songs) and the Institut für Deutsche Musikforschung (institute for German music research). Furthermore the structure of the Abteilung II Volksmusik (department of folk music), which was important for the research in South Tyrol, will be pointed out. In the same process the question of Quellmalz' political conviction, which is important for the contextualization of his work, will be answered too. Finally, this part of the paper focuses on the structure and the development of the 'Ahnenerbe' and the associated Kulturkommission.The second part of this paper aims at an outline of the situation in South Tyrol at that time regarding Fascism and the 'Option'. The question of similar research work carried out by the fascist regime will be answered too. In addition, the structure of the South Tyrolean Kulturkommission and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Optanten will be explained. Moreover, this part focuses on the structure and the development of the Gruppe Volksmusik conducted by Alfred Quellmalz and the political and professional backgrounds of its members.The third part of this paper is dedicated to the process of the musicological field research in South Tyrol and its results, as well as to the problems resulting from the cooperation with fascist authorities. The paper ends with an examination of the reception and the significance of the 'Sammlung Quellmalz' for the South Tyrolean folk music after 1945.