Austrian Military Service and Social Law Regulations The Austrian Armed Forces are composed of personnel holding the status of a civil servant as well as of soldiers doing their obligatory military service based on the National Defence Act. While social rights regulations pertaining to the first group of persons can be compared with those of other employees, conscripts and their next of kin are covered by various social law regulations.Starting with the historical development of the National Defence Act and its constitutional and other legal basics, some chapters of this thesis are meant to analyze and comprehensively present the effects of compulsory military service on issues like health insurance, unemployment insurance, accident insurance, and the public pension scheme. Beyond that, the author discusses selected problems that may come up in connection with the social security agencies responsible for the conscripts and their next of kin, problems the author knows from his practical everyday work. Likewise, other topics, like family subsidy, staff provision scheme and family or partner allowance as well as the housing benefits issue (as set out in the Military Pay Act of 2001) could only be covered marginally.Even though the topic of this work relates to the time of compulsory military service, it also discusses the period of a voluntary military training service ? on the one hand because social rights regulations for this type of service were overlapping with those for the compulsory service until 31 December 2010; on the other hand because voluntary training service has even become more important among persons covered by the National Defence Act, as the set of norms and regulations pertaining to this type of service was extended on 01 January 2010. Prior to final conclusions, the author compares the social rights regulations applicable for the civil service with those of the military service.