Franz Rosenzweig (1886?1929), who is known as one of the most distinguished pioneers in the Philosophy of Dialog, developed at the beginning of the 20th century his own philosophical approach. Parallel to this, he also published scriptures pertaining to education and andragogy. Both of these approaches, his philosophy and his concept of education, are based on an anthropological understanding which plead for a willingness of dialog and a dignified behaviour in terms of the Jewish-Biblical tradition. This work attempts to clarify the interpretation of Rosenzweig?s philosophical and educational work, analysing the concepts of Mensch, Freiheit, Leben, Zeit and Sprache (person, freedom, life, time and language). The first chapter highlights some of the main biographical facts which were significant for Rosenzweig?s understanding of the history of ideas and religion. Furthermore, Rosenzweig?s reference to Hegel, Schelling and Hermann Cohen and their relevance for his very own philosophical approach will be outlined. The second chapter illustrates the philosophical tradition standing in absolute contrast to his thinking: the Altes Denken (Old Thinking). The New Thinking ? his personal developed approach ? will be discussed in chapter three. How a person is definied within his own philosophy is displayed in chapter four, which can be understood as a consolidation of his anthropology into his concept of education. Consequently, an anthropology based on the New Thinking with a dialogical concept of education will be presented in chapter five. Therefore, a Neue Bildung (New Education) is demanded. In chapter six I will introduce new terms referring to Franz Rosenzweig, which illustrates the interdependence of his philosophy and pedagogy. A recapitulation of the results and conclusion is provided in the last chapter.