Tough the lithuanian sovereignity took place almost twenty years ago, Lithuania is still in an ongoing transformation process. In spite of prompt reforms and the orientation towards western Europe, the ideologic differences had been too big to bring a quick transfer to the new system.From an economic point of view Lithuania belongs to one of the fastest growing countries in Europe. The average increase can be pointed at six percent, however on a low level, but it is a strong sign for future developments. Unfortunately the main focus of these development processes is concentrated on the central lithuanian region. More than two thirds of the total gross domestic product is contributed by the axis Vilnius ? Kaunas ? Klaipeda.A more problematic scene is shown by the analysis of the demographic changes. The major part of all statistical data provides negative tendencies. Not a single county did have a growth of its population. The most serious problem is definitely the balance of migration. As a result this young republic already lost more than 10 percent of its population since the independence. Main reasons for leaving homecountry is a lack of prospects and since becoming member of European Union to have the posibility of an employment in a country with higher saleries.Nevertheless there are excisting potentials to turn these facts into positive tendencies. Lithuania could play a role as a junction between East and West in European economy. Of course dependent on a liberalization of russian and belarussion borders. Specially in the agriculture or tourism ressources are wasted, indeed there is a need of modernization of the obsolete infrastructure. The three big cities already reached a relative high level, so the inner disparities of the Republic of Lithuania are aggravating. So European Union and Lithuania focus their main tasks to equalize the regional developement.