Within the scope of this master thesis possible causes and effects of shoulder pain in view of swimming are responded as well as therapy and prevention possibilities are explored on the basis of a literature review.The first part deals with the anatomy and the biomechanics of the shoulder joint and the surrounding anatomical structures which could play a considerable role in causing damages of the shoulder joint. Subsequently, problems in injuries and degenerative impairment are described in detail. Moreover, reasons for the development of such problems are given as well.At following chapter, the swimming technique as well pathomechanical processes in freestyle swimming are discussed, which actually trigger shoulder pains.Within the thesis work, priority is being given in the two subsequent chapters which highlight operative and mainly conservative treatments as well as preventive measures. Hence, operative intervention calls for specific diagnostically treatments, for instance radiographic and clinical screening. The conservative techniques, in turn, needs a closer look in each phase of wound healing to be able to make treatment proposals. Concerning the prevention, conditional as well coordinative, technical abilities have to be trained in particular. The purpose is to show how preventive measures can help to reduce risk for the occurrence of shoulder pain.