In order to understand the theology of original sin by the Innsbrucker dogmatist Raymund Schwager, this thesis will preliminary treat the development of the doctrine of original sin. In the first part, the biblical foundations of the doctrine, as well as its development in the first few centuries after Christ are shown. The most famous theologian of the ancient world, who dealt with the original sin, was Augustine. He developed his doctrine of original sin through the dispute with Pelagius and his followers. Not for nothing, even today Augustine is still called the ?Father of the doctrine of original sin?. In the early modern times, the doctrine was finally assessed at the Council of Trent. Due to the modern understanding of liberty, which came along with enlightenment, the traditional doctrine got increasingly questioned. By the middle of the 20th century, theology started to open itself to the ideas of the modern world, thus creating a multitude of modern theologies of original sin. One of them is the theology of Raymund Schwager who worked the doctrine out within the context of evolutionary theory. He also used the mimetic theory of Renè Girard to develop his theology: Imitation is of great significance concerning the transmission of sin. Nevertheless, Schwager does not want to give up the doctrine of the Council of Trent by placing imitation into the center of his theology. In fact, he sees the common grounds of inheritance and imitation within the mimetic theory. His theology aims at a connection between evolutionary thinking and Christian dogmatic theology.