Where is the difference between Austrian and Franco-Canadian literature? Or do they have some aspects in common? And how do Austria and Quebec remember the recent past and the 20th century?Those questions are briefly presenting the most important contents of this thesis, starting with a historico-cultural approach to the literature scenes of Austria and Quebec. The very first part is to be considered as an attempt to characterise Austrian and Franco-Canadian literature and to show how these two ‘minor scenes differ from the ‘major ones in Germany and in France. Therefore the question about a literary identity is the central aspect of this characterization. Memory is closely linked with identity, so the interdisciplinary memory research constitutes another important basis for the analysis of four selected novels during this thesis. In this part, the theoretical concepts of cultural and communicative memory according to Assmann and to Welzer are in the focus of interest. Furthermore, the relevance of literature as a medium of memory and a mimesis of remembrance will be discussed. The analysis as practical part of this thesis is a discussion of four selected novels from Austria and Quebec. Regarding these novels, there is to distinguish between two genres: Both, the Austrian and Franco-Canadian scene, are contributing one generation-novel as well as one province-novel to the analysis. The discussion of these texts pursue the goal to show, how the contents of cultural and communicative memory are manifested in literature, examining the question, how literature works as a medium of memory. Finally, it will be shown, which kind of contents of the collective memory of the two scenes are represented in these four novels and how they create literary identity.