For a general screening of the current extent of the genetic diversity of old pipfruit varieties, the microsatellite method was chosen, for differentiation and characterisation, which is independent from biotic and abiotic influences.To screen the differentiation potential of three selected apple and pear microsatellites respectively, 651 apple and 180 pear collections were included in this diversity examination. 248 apple cultivars and 86 pear varieties could be distinguished by their microsatellite lenght. These results clearly showed that three selected microsatellites are sufficient for the genetic differentation of old pipfriut varieties. The appearance of genotypic variants as results of somatic mutations reveals the limits of the microsatellite technique as genetic differentiation method. By the implementation of the new variety feature, the allelic composition of the three selected microsatellites respectively, the establishment of a reference data base on genetic level is essential. This data base enables the identification of pipfriut varieties, which are unbeknown or appointed with local names. The apple reference data base involves 49 cultivars; the pear reference data base includes six varieties.To achieve a preferably substantial reference data base it is necessary to implicate apple and pear varieties from other central-European stray fruit orcharding regions. Therefore a practice was developed, in cooperation with the Research Centre of Agriculture and Forestry Laimburg (The South Tyrol, Italy), which assures the conversion of relative microsatellite length, which are generated in different labs due to the application of unequal analytical systems, to absolut allel sizes. In Styria there are 113 apple and 54 pear varieties. According to their appearance, these cultivars are attributed to their ecological requirements. The pipfriut diversity in the parts of Slovenia comprises 25 apple and 19 pear cultivars.