While spoken and written translations of texts have played a crucial role in interhuman communication throughout history, the study of translation as an academic subject has been dismissed and has only really begun in the last part of the twentieth century. Similarly, the literary genre of fantasy fiction has been frowned upon and was not taken seriously until, also in the second half of the twentieth century, a man named J.R.R Tolkien heralded the rise of fantasy literature with his epic high-fantasy novel "The Lord of the Rings". The present thesis deals with the problems and challenges translators face when translating a work of fantasy fiction from English into German. First of all, the thesis gives a general overview on the history of translation and the development of Translation Studies, and takes a look at literary translation and the important role of the literary translator. It also discusses the literary and transmedial genre of fantasy fiction, outlining characteristics and origins of the genre. In the practical part of the thesis, the translation process is examined in more detail, and eight challenges are explained that may pose special difficulties in the translation of fantasy fiction. Among these challenges are the translation of cultural transfer, the translation of proper names and places, of invented fantasy languages, and of the works title. Additionally, three popular and well-known works of fantasy fiction by J.R.R. Tolkien, J.K. Rowling, and George R.R. Martin are used for analysis. Select pieces of text from and information on the chosen novels are compared and discussed in order to demonstrate individual translators solutions to specific translational challenges.