This thesis deals with the fragmentation of landscapes by linear transport infrastructure and its counteract by landscape bridges. Three main topics are covered. The first topic of the thesis considers the current state of research regarding to the fragmentation, focusing on Austria and Europe. Afterwards, linear transport infrastructure and its effects on habitat fragmentation are addressed. The last topic concentrates on landscape bridges and their potential of reconnecting habitats, based on selected examples.A list of issues was developed using principles of scientific methods, for evaluating the potential of landscape bridges.The results of this thesis show, that the ongoing fragmentation has a crucial impact on nature and that the degree of fragmentation is going to increase due to rising living standards. Therefore, resource protection and habitat reconnection is already part of politics and the process of land-use planning.To reduce the respective effect for example higher mortality risks, decreasing habitats, constituting barriers - of linear transport infrastructures on wildlife, direct methods such as safety fences or indirect methods like landscape crossings can be applied. These measures might compensate for the barrier effect of roads and keep wildlife corridors open. Due to the size and the options to relink habitat corridors, landscape bridges have a tremendous potential for distinct species groups. Although there is both evidence of landscape bridges being used by wildlife, as well as ongoing researches in this field, a lot of questions remain unanswered.