The questions of our existence and origins have been occupying the human mind for a long time. Thanks to the discovery of numerous hominid fossils over the last decades, the moleculobiological methods and the computer-aided programs and techniques to execute model calculations, we are already rather familiar with the foundations of the human evolution.The goal of this diploma thesis is to present the reasons for the changes in anatomy and social behavior of the different prehistoric, pre and early men beyond the scope of the knowledge acquired at school. Popular science books by Richard WRANGHAM, Yuval Noah HARARI and Thorolf HARDT have been the basis for this work.The first two chapters serve an informational purpose for this thesis. Within these chapters, an overview of features and special characteristics of primates and hominines will be given. The third chapter will then make reference to the curriculum of the lower and upper grades of the AHS. Changes in anatomy and the way of life of our ancestors, as well as the development of different skills and possible reasons for these improvements will be described in chapter four, including a deeper insight into the impact the discovery of fire had on the lives of the early men. The focus here will be put on to the ‘cooking hypothesis and the ‘energy theory. In addition to that, different ‘raw food theories and their influence on the human body will be discussed. Also part of this chapter will be the cognitive revolution, which took place 70 000 years ago, and the relating impressive achievements and newly developed skills of the Homo sapiens especially focusing on the exceptionality of the human language and its impact on us and our ancestors. The last chapter will be dealing with discussions as a method of teaching and discussion-stimulating questions on the topic of the human evolution will be listed.