The present thesis explores the civil law consequences for babies who are switched at birth, based on the legal situation in Austria. Within the meaning of this thesis, babies switched at birth are those who fail to be assigned to their biological parents at the hospital. These children then grow up under the identity of the other child, in a family to whom they are not biologically related. The aim of this thesis is to academically review the civil law consequences for babies switched at birth, and to propose a suitable legal solution to what Gitschthaler has described as a sheer “horror” for legal practitioners. Knowledge concerning ones own existence undoubtedly plays a decisive role in the development of ones personality and, moreover, has a profound influence on ones own identity. In the first chapter, the relevant aspects of family law will be examined in more detail; above all, the legal problems which arise in relation to ancestry and how they may be solved. In the second chapter of this thesis, issues relating to inheritance law will be investigated more closely, followed in the third chapter by claims for damages. The fourth chapter is devoted to aspects of restitution for unjust enrichment, specifically maintenance claims. The thesis concludes with a summary of findings and a consideration of possible preventative measures.