The thesis deals with the marriage behaviour and the family structures of the ancient Macedonian royal dynasty of the Argeads as well as of the early Hellenistic ruling families of the Seleucids, Antigonids and Ptolemies. Beginning in the early Macedonian period, all marriages of the Macedonian and Hellenistic kings will be examined, with a special focus on the marriage policy of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. When some of Alexanders generals, the so-called Diadochi, could ascent to kingship after the death of Alexander they initially followed the Argeadic traditions in their marriage behaviour. Therefore, particular attention is paid to finding reasons for the relatively quick ending of polygamous family relations in the second or third generation of the dynasties. It is assumed, that there is a connection between attempts of legitimization, the emergence of Hellenistic territorial states, and the emergence of serial monogamy. Potential factors for the change in family structures of early hellenistic dynasties were rarely considered in previous research. Hence this thesis points out several new aspects for future studies. The analysis includes in addition to written, numismatic, epigraphic and iconographic sources also the latest results of anthropological and archaeological research.