Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic systemic autoimmune disease during infancy and approximately 1700 children under the age of 16 are currently affected by it in Austria. JIA is a genereic term for chronic joint inflammation in childhood and adolescents up to the age of 16, which last for at least 6 weeks and affects one or more joints. A diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis is often very complicated, because each of the six different forms shows varying symptoms. There are also no definite parameters, which indicate the disease. Using inspections from Doctors, detailed surveys concerning the health conditions of the child, laboratory parameters and imaging techniques allow a diagnosis of exclusion. This thesis should give a brief overview on the history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and its epidemiologiy. Additionally, fundamentals like the anatomy of joints, the functioning of the immune system and the formation of inflammation will be discussed. Subsequently, the current state of theories concerning the development of the disease will be explored. Currently, it is believed that the onset is triggered by a combination of genetical predisposition and an infectious event. The diagnostic measures will be discussed in detail as well as the possible pharmaceutical therapies, on which the main focus of this thesis will be laid on. The standard therapeutics as well as latest research results and compounds like the TNF--inhibitor or costimulation antagonists will be closely examined in this part as well. Additionally, the different forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, its symptoms and therapies will be covered to understand how complex the diagnostics and treatments can be. Finally, non-drug therapies like physiotherapy, ergotherapy or psychosocial care will be examined.