In nursing, education pedagogues are confronted with the management and transfer of knowledge on a daily basis. The challenge in the dual education system ist to convey and sustain knowledge and to teach how the mastered skills can be practically applied in a professional surrounding.To apply the theoretical knowledge and various skills, teachers use different methods. This paper aims at describing and comparing lecture style teaching, which is used most often, and the method of problem-based learning. It also addresses the pedagogical, organizational, and infrastructural conditions which are necessary to use each teaching method. Furthermore, it reflects upon the various assignments, the roles of teachers and the opinions of students, as well as differences and challenges that occur as a result. The impact of both methods with regard to lasting learning success and performance exams is evaluated. The results are discussed under consideration of the current changes in the Gesundheits- und Krankenpflegegesetz in Austria. The positive and negative aspects of both methods are critcally compared in order to help teachers decide which style to apply.