The following paper focuses on the role of children during World War I. Although they were not directly affected by the fighting, the war still changed their lives significantly. The value of the youngest members of society was discovered at a rather early stage of the war and thus, they were used by the warmongering powers for their purposes, which included collecting resources such as money and natural produce. The children also played an essential role as mediators between the nation and the parents. Another important function during the war was assigned to the schools, which were supposed to inform the children about the urgency of general attendance. In order to motivate them, special childrens books as well as games were adapted and impressive exhibitions, for example at the Prater in Vienna, were presented to the public. Even though both boys and girls had to participate in the war, their fields of work differed from each other. Sewing, knitting and the production of care packages, which were sent to the soldiers, were typical activities for girls, whereas the boys job was to collect money. In the course of the war, the circumstances got worse and children were forced to queue in front of grocery stores, search the fields for something to eat and do the entire housework. Additionally, the slowly proceeding war caused a decline in the initial enthusiasm among the population and the people started to come down to earth.