Self-threat is defined as an attack on the positive view of the self. Indications are showing, that this kind of threat can lead to a decreased brain activity in the ACC and in the Thalamus. These areas are responsible for attention and for thus, it was assumed, that self-threat influences not only self-esteem but also attention. The present study investigated the influence of self-threat on the attention activation (alerting) in relation to positive and negative, self- and other-related adjectives. We tested 185 people. After a test for numerical-inductive reasoning, the participants received either a self-threatening feedback or a self-boosting feedback. The attention was measured with a self-constructed Flanker task. In this task, word series consisting of five equal adjectives were presented and the participants had to assess, whether the word in the middle was written correctly or incorrectly. In accordance with the self-enhancement-theory and the mnemic-neglect-model, it was expected that people who had been exposed to a self-threat, would show higher alerting on positive self-related adjectives and neglect negative self-related adjectives, to rebuild their self-esteem. This distinction was neither expected from participants without self-threat nor in the processing of other-related words. In addition, it was examined, whether the effect of the self-threat is moderated by the explicit and implicit trait-self-esteem. The results indicated that the participants showed a higher alerting to negative words compared to positive words, independently from the reference, and the received feedback. Supplementary calculations suggested, that people need higher alerting to negative words, to be able to react at all. Trait self-esteem showed no moderating effect on the attention.