The aim of the diploma thesis “Garlic (Allium sativum): Facts and myths in terms of human health” is to investigate the varied use of garlic in healing and the prevention of illnesses. A. sativum is one of the oldest cultured plants and has a millennia-long tradition not only as a delicious spice but also as an important medicinal plant. Throughout different cultures it has been used as a remedy for almost every known disease. Its reputation as a panaceae made the plant also known as a popular remedy for dark magic in the superstition of many peoples.The first part of this thesis deals with the history of phytotherapy and garlic as well as other plants of its genus. The second part specifies the present knowledge of the potential benefits of garlic for the human health. For this purpose, the most popular uses of A.^ sativum in todays medicine, including the benefits for the cardiovascular system, cancer, AIDS, dermatosis, and microbial infections, will be examined by comparing and contrasting different studies. Most of the studies confirm the positive effects of garlic used as a herbal treatment. However, it has to be considered that in some cases synthetic drugs would work more efficiently than garlic and many people are deterred by the body odour, which comes with the frequent intake of garlic or its supplements. Additionally, as the research in this area is not very advanced, medicine does not have a complete insight into the effect of garlic on the human body. One of the most important outcomes of recent studies could be the adoption of antibacterial components found in garlic as future antibiotics, because multidrug resistant strains of bacteria towards the actual antibiotics spread and are becoming a severe problem. A.^ sativum could be the solution as it is much harder for bacterial strains to develop resistances against the bactericidal organosulfur compounds of garlic. The results of future studies remain to be seen and might help to evaluate the various treatments with A. sativum but the past has shown that garlic is an effective remedy to strengthen the immune system and prevent various diseases.