On account of the current political situation in and around Europe, the Austrian school system is faced with a great challenge. Several million people are on the run because of the persistent crisis, especially in Syria. Many of them came and come to Austria to seek asylum. Among the refugees are children and youth. Hence, this paper deals with the question of compulsory education for children of refugees. Generally, how they should be integrated and which measures are to be taken. The important task of Austrian schools is to integrate these children in the Austrian school system as well as to teach them. The first part of this paper will give a coarse overview of the historical development of the school system and how the school system is in general. In the second part, the topic of refugees will be discussed. Definitions, figures, facts as well as the legal bases are in the foreground here. The third part encloses a general representation of the compulsory education system. Additional reference is made to the refugee-related questions. Finally an overview following concern of the competence of bearing the costs and the resulting general costs.