The present thesis deals with the topic of textile fibers focusing on the chemistry of the fibers themselves. In addition, a reference to school education is made. Therefore, the current work is divided into two parts.The first part is covering the chemistry of textile fibers and the manufacturing of textiles. All three main groups, namely natural, semi-synthetic and chemical fibers, which can serve as fibrous base materials, are considered. At first, important terms will be defined followed by the detailed description of the single types of fibers, sorted by their chemical origin. Further, the fabrication of fibers out of synthetic polymers will be depicted. Finally, the manufacturing of textiles based on various fibers is described.In the second part, the topic textile fibers in school education focusing on secondary academic schools will be presented. First, the curriculum for the education in the subject chemistry regarding textile fibers was surveyed and analyzed. Further, four school books each for the lower and the upper level of the secondary academic school were examined carefully on the content on textile fibers. Several ways how to give pupils an understanding of textile fibers are introduced. Herein, the focus rests on free working as well as group work. Finally, several partly easy experiments, which can be performed by the pupils on their own introducing them to practical experimentation, are highlighted.In conclusion, the topic chemistry of textile fibers runs through the present thesis like a thread. While the broad knowledge concerning the chemistry of textile fibers is summarized in the first part, the second part is aiming to transfer this knowledge into school education suitable for pupils.