The Austrian legislature enacted several laws concerning the requirement to wear protective equipment in sports and on roadways predominantly the compulsory wearing of a helmet. Recent case law in 2014 and 2015 extended these requirements to additional hazardous activities. Violations are particularly relevant with respect to civil law as they lead to substantial reductions of damages due to contributory negligence. This scientific paper outlines the current legal situation and assesses the application and impact of recent case law on other, previously unconcerned fields of sports and roadway usage. It examines compulsory wearing of a helmet for motorcycle and bicycle riders, winter sportsmen, paragliders and hang-gliders. The obligation to wear appropriate motorcycle clothing will also be investigated. This will be followed by an enquiry of compulsory wearing of back and pelvis protection in winter sports, paragliding and hang-gliding. Furthermore the usefulness of such protective equipment will be critically scrutinized by the analysis of accident occurrence in conjunction with relevant studies.