This diploma thesis presents a comparative law approach between specific aspects of the Austrian and Turkish Juvenile Criminal Law. Differences between Austria and Turkey which exist in the face of historical, cultural and sociological aspects, can also be found in the legal system of both countries. Based on the historical development, terminological aspects, special treatments at hearings and process-related aspects and diversion, this paper will examine differences and similarities between the Austrian and Turkish juvenile criminal law systems. Whereas the special position and treatment of young offenders in Austria has been clearly defined within the Juvenile Court Act of 1988, such clear definition is still missing in Turkey. In fact, Turkey is currently aiming to adapt its legal system to European standards based on the EU accession negotiations. Thus, Turkey introduced a Child Protection Act in 2005. However, the current system of criminal law relating to young offenders is defined in such a way that it resembles strongly the general criminal law system.