Permafrost in high mountain regions has been intensively investigated in the last decades due to the assumption of a higher potential risk for alpine infrastructure and people that comes along with degrading permafrost in times of climate warming. In the context of this study, measurements of ground surface temperature (GST) and ground temperature at different depths (GT) at 55 sites, which are distributed in nine study areas in the Hohe and Niedere Tauern Range at elevations between 1,932 and 3,002 m a.s.l. in different aspects, slope angles and substrates, were available. By means of this data, an review of the ground temperature conditions over the period summer/autumn 2006 to summer/autumn 2014 and the associated permafrost conditions is provided and the question, what kind of relevance different substrates have for the ground thermal regime, is examined. To attain this, 16 parameters were calculated. The years 06/07 and 13/14 were the warmest and 07/08 and 09/10 the coldest years in the period under observation. No trend in the change of ground temperature conditions could be determined due to different snow cover developments and meteorological conditions in respective winter seasons. The occurrence of permafrost is unlikely at 18 of 46 sites and at 13 it is probable. The mean annual ground surface temperature is in average cooler in coarse grained material compared to bedrock and fine grained material. Sites in fine grained material show the highest ground temperatures. In conclusion, it can be determined that there were differences between the results of GST- and GT-based parameters. Possible explanations were found (e.g. application of linearity to non-linear, natural phenomena). For a definite clarification, additional measurements would have been required.