Bronchial asthma, commonly known as asthma, is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and respiratory obstruction. Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory diseases of the lungs and the most common chronic disease among children and young people. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) around 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. The manifestation of asthma consists of recurrent attacks of breathlessness, wheezing (whistling breath), chest tightness and coughing. The severity, frequency and duration of asthma attacks can vary occasionally and individually. Asthma cannot be cured, however the attacks and symptoms can usually be prevented or reduced. Through different prevention and proper treatment according to individual symptoms, asthma can be controlled so that patients can have unrestricted daily life and lifestyle. Another important thing for adequate asthma management is an early diagnosis. Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system are described at the beginning of this thesis. After a brief overview of the different types of asthma and diagnostic methods, the pathogenesis of allergic asthma has been explained in greater detail. The immunological processes in asthma pathogenesis with the involved inflammatory cells and mediators are presented. The main focus of this thesis lies on the pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma.