In the historical novel “Der Medicus” (English title: “The Physician”), the main character “Rob” is travelling to Isfahan to become a physician. During his sojourn in Isfahan, he encounters the Arabic culture and medicine. Ibn Sina, the popular physician, also known as Avicenna in the Western tradition, instructed him to the craft of medicine. For this reason, he was finally able to become a physician and worked in the maristan (Hospital) in Isfahan. He could repeatedly observe patients suffering from “side-sickness” (Appendicitis), but was unable to help them. Although he knew that, for religious reasons, he was not allowed to anatomise human corpses, he defied the prohibition and let his curiosity take its course. The present paper deals with Arabic medicine, which plays an essential role in the novel "The Physician". Further, it raises the question of how much modern research knows about dissection in medieval times, which attitudes of the huge monotheistic religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam the novel depicts to this topic and in how far indices for religious barriers to the progress of medicine exist. Based on numerous sources and the current scholarly literature, this paper consequently reaches the conclusion that religious commandments hindered the progress of medieval medicine. In Islam, a Koranic commandment clearly prohibited the dissection of human corpses. However, for Christianity there existed no special law that interdicted autopsy, but a papal bull at the hands of Boniface VIII. was for a long time seen as a ban for autopsy. For this reason, medical progress had also been restricted and hindered. One cannot make explicit statements concerning the medieval attitude of Judaism to the dissection of human bodies the identifiable signs however are an indicative of rejection in this monotheistic religion.