My diploma thesis explores the interaction of the industrialization and the Italian literature of the twenties and thirties. For examining the representation of the subject matter I used the concept of the machine-human, which was - and still is - widely discussed in philosophy and literature. The corpus of my thesis consists of four texts of three authors, who where literary active during the modern industrialization of Italy and who criticized its threatening consequences on the society, each in their own way. The literary works I used for my analysis are the following: the two plays "Raun" and "Langoscia delle macchine" from Ruggero Vasari, the essay "La vita operosa" from Massimo Bontempelli and the novel "Quaderni di Serafino Gubbio operatore" from Luigi Pirandello. While Vasaris criticism is expressed through the destruction of his thoroughly constructed futuristic utopia of a mechanized world, to lead the machine-humans back to their humanity, Bontempelli uses a series of oppositions like idyllic past vs. modern present, artistic handicraft vs. relentless trading and traditional practices vs. threatening technological innovations to illustrate the world of an artist, struggling with his modernized environment. With Pirandello and his cameraman, who is totally subordinated to his camera and who disposed himself of his emotions, we stay in an artistic environment and draw again nearer to the concept of the machine-human, which we saw in Vasaris plays. Hence the three authors - despite their different approaches to the matter - share a critical attitude towards the mechanization of the world, which causes the dehumanization of the people, the downfall of the free artists and the loss of the human aura through technology as defined by Walter Benjamin.