The development of wealth and income in recent decades has contributed to increased polarization between wealth and poverty. The present master thesis examines the issue of social sustainability in conjunction with income inequality and wealth distribution in Austria. Based on empirical studies and by using the Gini coefficient, the wealth inequalities of Austrian households and their causes are being demonstrated. First of all, different forms of income distribution will be addressed and explained. Following a brief introduction into wealth distribution, chapter three deals with the household survey commissioned by the ECB (HFCS study) in Austria, prior and after data correction. Moreover, data from the Global Wealth Report 2015 provides additional interesting insights into the development of global wealth. Finally, the chapter "redistribution and social sustainability" examines the study of the gap between rich and poor and the situation of wealth distribution in Austria in comparison to other countries. This part of the study will, among other things, address the question of how redistribution and state intervention can countervail unequal distribution of wealth in Austria. The question of a "right" or "equitable" (re)distribution - in both national and global perspective - denotes a special relevance for society by ascribing an essential role in social sustainability and justice to it.