This paper provides an overview of the early modern large-scale immigration policies. In addition to a conceptual approach, the first part of this paper explores the various theories of governments in the early modern period, explaining why European countries wanted to increase their population. It also provides an overview of the development of demography in Europe and a description of the respective reactions of the states in various operations. It then goes on to present the diverse circumstances surrounding the large-scale immigration policies of that period. Here we speak of the state-controlled advertising, the role of military considerations, as well as privileges and migration itself. The paper will go on to discuss the importance of denominational influx for large-scale immigration policy in the early modern period, with reference to the Exodus of the Huguenots and Salzburg. Indeed, arguments can be found which suggest that there is a relationship between the major religious refugee movements and the development of state theories towards large-scale immigration policies. These arguments will be presented and discussed here. The second part of the paper presents the practical application of large-scale immigration policies. First it describes the population policy of the cities, so as to provide a detailed overview of the policies of Prussia and Austria. These two countries were also the main actors affected by an increase in population in the early modern period. This part highlights the causes that made a population policy necessary, the various problems in the practical implementation of the theoretical discussion, and the effects thereof. Finally, the paper provides an overview that indicates how large-scale immigration policies contributed to power politics, and where state projects failed due to real political problems.