This thesis deals with the consequences of Ottoman-Habsburg confrontation to the cultural and collective memory, and the reception of information of and about the Ottomans in the Habsburg Empire. Therefore, paintings, prints, legends, songs, celebrations, customs and monuments that recall the years of this terrible conflict and the perceived existence of Ottoman peril, have been analyzed and interpreted. In addition the legacy of the Ottomans in Austria and their influence on the language of Austrians are being researched. The two sieges of Vienna in 1529 and 1683, which had so severely shaken the population of the Habsburg Empire were, for political purposes, heavily exploited over the following centuries. Even if people wanted to block out memories of the Ottomans, this was made impossible by the Church and the emperor. The Ottomans were presented to the population as a punishment sent by God for previous sins. Only a more religious life and true divine service could help Christians to defeat these monsters. The authorities made sure that the population was constantly afraid of Ottoman raids. The introduction of “Türkengebete” (Turk prayers), “Türkenglocken” (Turk bells), and “Türkenlieder” (Turk songs) should ensure the populations awareness of the threat the Ottomans posed. In the 18th century the extremely exaggerated image of the Ottomans changed for several decades in an oriental exoticism. The Austro-fascist government of the 20th century referred back again to the relief of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1683 and to the “Türkenjubiläumsfeiern” (Turks anniversary celebrations) of the 18th and 19th centuries in order to strengthen the missing national pride in Austria and to warn the population against internal enemies.