The fascination of ancient religions has persisted until today. Myths, sagas and legends of this epoch still cause amazement. Therefore, this thesis deals with the priestess in the republican Rome and in the classical Athens, their differences and similarities. In the first chapter a description of the goddess Athena and her priestesses and priests is given. In the second chapter the goddess Vesta, with her mere female priests are described. In the last chapter the commonalities and differences in cults, customs and feasts are explained.