Between 10 and 12 Million people of Roma origin are living in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. A history of constant uprooting and marginalization made them the most vulnerable group of Europeans. For generations they have been caught in a circuit of poverty and social exclusion. Part of their multiple disadvantages is the discrimination in national education systems. This thesis discusses Article 2 of Protocol No.1 to the ECHR and the question how the problems and needs of Roma children in primary education are covered by the right to education, guaranteed under this article. Therefore, in the first part of the thesis, the actual problems of Roma children in primary education are identified and the necessary measures to guarantee an equal access to education, compared to the majority population, determined. Thereafter, a detailed analysis of the ECtHRs case-law, regarding the right to education for Roma children, follows. The cases of D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic (2007), Oršuš and Others v. Croatia (2010) and Horváth and Kiss v. Hungary (2013) are in the main focus of this analysis. The outcome of this discussion shows the scope of protection offered by the right to education, guaranteed under the ECHR, for children belonging to a Roma minority. Following, these results are compared with the actual problems and required measures, determined at the beginning. The final conclusions are discussing, if Article 2 of Protocol No.1 to the ECHR corresponds to the inherent claim of a human right to protect every human being to the same extent.