This thesis investigates the reciprocal relationship between community-specific political memories and formal history education in ‘catholic and ‘protestant schools in Northern Ireland. It analyzes the extent to which myths about the past are conveyed or deconstructed in history lessons, the ways in which these lessons are affected by partial interpretations and, on the other hand, whether history classes influence the collective memory. In order to do so, the portrayal and coverage of the Easter Rising, the Battle of the Somme and the Good Friday/Belfast Agreement are exemplarily examined in the Northern Irish history curriculum, three textbooks and the survey responses of former post-primary students. To enhance the understanding of the complex subject matter, historical background information is provided, theories concerning the collective memory and its implications for nation-building and ethnic conflict are introduced and general structures of the Northern Irish education system outlined. The findings of this research indicate community-specific differences as well as intercommunity similarities. While ‘hidden curricula and biased beliefs affect the selection of content and the views expressed in class, political narratives are also investigated and questioned. Yet, as this is solely done in a limited way, the extent to which myths are actually deconstructed often remains restricted, and reluctant teachers continue to avoid addressing contentious issues. Additionally, formal history education appears to hardly induce changes of opinion among students and is occasionally even used to substantiate previously held beliefs. Even though political memories and history education mutually influence each other, the impact of the former on the latter appears to be stronger as community-specific narratives are omnipresent in society and education often lacks a coherent approach of how to deal with the past, especially with its contentious aspects.