The first part of the presented diploma thesis examines the development of the constitutional law of Israel with special consideration of the legal status of the Basic Laws and the legal situation of women under the secular and religious law. The second part deals with the conscription and the voluntary military service for women in the patriarchal institution of the global military although the main focus lies on the conscription for women in Israel. In the first instance, historical occurrences like the end of the governance of the Ottoman Empire over Palestine, the British Mandate for Palestine, and the United Nations Resolution Number 181 (II), which included the partition of Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish state and conclusively led into the proclamation of the State of Israel on May 14th 1948, are addressed. The discussion about the existence of a constitution that has continued for decades drew a positive conclusion in this very thesis based on an analysis of the Basic Laws and the consideration of important Supreme Court cases. Not a law of constitutional rank but of fundamental importance is the Womens Equal Rights Law, which is because of the lack of separation between state and religion, in conflict to religious law. This is the reason for the abstinence of full legal equality between men and women. Also, this status is reflected in the military and in the fact of the shorter conscription for women, grounds of exemption which applies only for women and the different career opportunities for men and women.