The main, but by no means uniformly defined principle of medical ethics is to be found in the ultimate authority ("ne plus ultra") of a human beings personal autonomy, inextricably linked to the concept of human dignity. While this lofty value is enshrined in the UN Declaration of Human Rights as well as in the European Convention of Human Rights, it is precisely this legal framing which carries with it the danger of abstraction of the always individual design thereof particularly in the case of highly vulnerable groups, such as dying persons, comatose and dementia patients. The context of high performance medicine, demographic development and increased focus on efficiency heightens the tension between empirically comparable facts and the individuals unique process of dying. Against this background, I shall initiate my discussion on assumptions regarding death, dying and human dignity as well as forms of gradual, situational, relational and spiritually accomplishable autonomy of vulnerable persons at the edge of human life. In the following in-depth treatment of musical theory I will concentrate on music and music therapy as a resource for such persons in particular. In the third part, I will investigate synergy effects derived from these and the preceding philosophical considerations. From this I deduce a threefold surplus ("Plusultra") for an ars moriendi nova, conducive to a patients personal autonomy: the opening of a resonance space for a vulnerable person, the search for his/her own sound ("Eigenton"), and the conscientious care for his/her acoustic environment.